Newsletter: Winter 98-99 Edition
Serving Acquired (Includes Traumatic)
Brain Injured Individuals and Their Families
Mailing & Billing
Volume 2 Number 2
The overlooked head injury disorder. As sighted beings, seeing is 80% of what we do. Even a small change in vision can have a powerful impact on cognitive and general functioning. There are vision trauma clinics that utilize in new techniques and rehabilitation therapies. there is also holistic vision care clinic specializing in rehabilitative therapies. Both treat vision related problems resulting from head trauma, whiplash and stroke. In addition, the specialists train the individuals' eyes to returning to a more normal sight restored and relief of eyestrain resulting from additional strain of reading and the use of computers'. If you feel there is a vision blurriness that "new" glasses and rest that has not cured, Please call our office and we will be refer you to a vision specialist.
POST TRAUMA VISION SYNDROME/ VISUAL MIDLINE SHIFT SYNDROME
William Padula, O.D.
Following a neurological event such as a traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular accident, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, etc., it has been noted by clinicians that persons frequently will report visual problems such as seeing objects appearing to move that are known to be stationary; seeing words in print run together; and experiencing intermittent blurring. More interesting symptoms are sometimes reported, such as attempting to walk on a floor that appears tilted and having significant difficulties with balance and spatial orientation when in crowded moving environments. These type of symptoms are not uncommon. Frequently, persons reporting these symptoms to eye care professionals (optometrists and ophthalmologists) have been told that their problems are not in their eyes and that their eyes appear to be healthy. What is often overlooked is dysfunction of the visual process causing one of two syndromes: Post Trauma Vision Syndrome (PTVS) and/or Visual Midline Shift Syndrome (VMSS).
Recent research has documented PTVS utilizing Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP). This documentation concludes that the ambient visual process frequently becomes dysfunctional after a neurological event such as a TBI or CVA. Persons can often have visual symptoms that are related to dysfunction between one of two visual processes: ambient process and focal process. These two systems are responsible for the ability to organize ourselves in space for balance and movement, as well as to focalize on detail such as looking at a traffic light. Post Trauma Vision Syndrome results when there is dysfunction between the ambient and focal process causing the person to over emphasize the details. Essentially individuals with PTVS begin to look at paragraphs of print almost as isolated letters on a page and have great difficulty organizing their reading ability. It has been found that the use of prisms and binasal occlusion can effectively demonstrate functional improvement, while also being documented on brain wave studies by increasing the amplitude (this is like turning up the volume on your radio).
Visual Midline Shift Syndrome also results from dysfunction of the ambient visual process. It is caused by distortions of the spatial system causing the individual to misperceive their position in their spatial environment. This causes a shift in their concept of their perceived visual midline. This will frequently cause the person to lean to one side, forward and/or backward. It frequently can occur in conjunction with individuals that have had a hemiparesis (paralysis to one side following a TBI or CVA). The shifting concept of visual midline actually reinforces the paralysis, by using specially designed yoked prisms that can be prescribed, the midline is shifted to a more centered position thereby enabling individuals to frequently begin weight bearing on their affected side. This works very effectively in conjunction with physical and occupational therapy attempting to rehabilitate weight bearing for ambulation.
William Padula, O.D. Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation Association International, Inc.,Guilford, CT
YOU LOOK FINE THEREFORE YOU ARE FINE, RIGHT?
K. Menucha Fogel, B.S.
The brain is much like an egg. The brain has a protective shell, so the egg. The brain has liquid that surrounds the brain so the egg. The brain is soft and easily damaged upon impact, so the egg. Just as we are protective of the egg when we take it out of the carton, so must we remember that the brain needs protecting in everyday life and activities. We must always be conscious of the fact that the skull does not mean that it can prevent injury to the brain. The skull is not the ultimate protective gear of the brain . It is an very important part of your body and therefore must be seriously taken care of.
In regard to the various types of impacts, of course this makes for various types of injuries that occur to the brain. It is commonly thought that the denser the impact the more serious the injury. The degree of impact often does not determine the dysfunction that will occur to the brain area impacted upon. The brain lies incased within the skull (cranium) within a protective liquid (. The brain runs by interexchanging messages or signals that are passed from one nerve cell to another by means of a network of billions upon billions of cell connections. Though the different sections or regions of the brain what a person does is controls by these different areas. Each has a specific function. There are four sections of each side of the brain; frontal lobe (over your forehead), parietal (top back of the head), temporal (over the ear) and occipital (back of the head). Each of these areas or regions has a responsibility. For instance, the temporal lobe controls speech and hearing. The frontal lobe is responsible for some behaviors. The brain stem, at the base of the brain, controls heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure and regulates temperature.
An area that is injured, hurt or damaged often causes loss of function, thus the person has a dysfunction. A brain that is injured often causes the person for temporary span of time to have losses in functionality. Depending on the area that is injured or damaged, this can produce dysfunctions in the ability to move correctly, be coordinated, understand sensation, process information and inability to concentrate or remember. A typical injury can not be described so easily, as there is no such thing as a typical brain injury. When there is an injury or damage to the brain, the severity depends on the location and the impact to the brain area. Recovery of a brain injury is also variable and not easy to determine. Many factors determine this. Premorbid conditions, external support systems, internal motivation system, family, friends, financial situation, insurance coverage to name a few. The final outcome of a person with a brain injury is often variable. A brain-injured person also can suffer from other symtomologies such as physical, emotional, intellectual, or psychological disabilities and dysfunctions. What determines a positive outcome is proper referrals inclusive of a neuropsychological evaluation, a visit to a physiatrist, care from a social worker, various therapies and follow-up. With all this in place, a positive future with realistic goals for the brain injured or brain damaged can be achieved.
K. Menucha Fogel, B.S., A.B.D., Founder and Executive Vice President, Brain Injury Society
BRAIN INJURY SOCIETY (BIS) BUZZING AND GETS A MASCOT
THE BUMBLE BEE
It seems that when confronted with barriers and obstacles, Brain Injury Society comes through. So the appropriate mascot… the bumblebee.
When the universe was created, many experiments in species were created as well. Some could not stand the test of time and elements, such as the dinosaur. Some worked and stayed throughout the ages, such as the bumble. Atomically incorrect, it does the impossible. It has its job. So, too Brain Injury Society.
BIS assists those who call or walk in to the office with going forward for themselves, their families and those interested in helping the acquired and traumatic brain injured individuals.
WORDS FROM THE EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT
WHAT IS AHEAD FOR BIS
It was suggested that I write on the goings on for the future of Brain Injury Society. It is amazing how far Brain Injury Society has gotten. My home phone on my desk with a small pc and today … a listed number in each of the five boroughs of New York City and a Manhattan physical presence where we see patients. BIS has indeed grown from the small cognitive project that I was given. Weekly there are calls for assistance, information and referrals, as well as wealth of thanks from the people we are helping or for just being there for information and the shoulder.
People have told me what a track record is and for our first year (a year with us has several starting points) no matter where we select our starting date is a WOW!!! So I am told and told and told. We have gained many friends and have a client waiting list.
So, from a first thought, as I saw that the association in Albany was not caring for New York City, the largest population of the state to where have presently received over 4400 calls including e-mails from the two websites and which constantly rise each month.
We have been approached to open a housing unit and it is in the plans to open the Brain Injury Society Facilitating Center in Brooklyn and Manhattan in the every near future. The capital project is very much in the works. We are working on the vocational and education after therapy ends to combine all learnt strategies and techniques of the recovering person. We have had many inkind donations, what are needed now is several benefactors and philanthropies to help us with the mundane things like paying our bills. Anyone out there who would like to donate heavy monies (I have a brain injury, I come to the bottom line quickly, sometimes). We are here with a deposit slip with and a our heartfelt thanks and a plaque waiting to have your name to be imprinted on it. We have opened our intake and interview division. We will have the following staff upon opening, a medical and clinical director, physiatrist, social workers, speech therapists, vocational counselors, diagnostic administrator, service coordinator, community integration counselors, home, community support counselors and plus the usual support staff that people can depend on for information.
BRAIN INJURY SOCIETY SPEAKING ENGAGEMENT AT ASSOCIATION OF ORTHODOX JEWISH SCIENTISTS A COMPLETE SUCCESS
BIS have graciously accepted the invitation of the Association of Orthodox Jewish Scientist on the subject of Stress and Brain Injury at the Neville Grand Hotel in the Catskill Mountains for their annual conference during the weekend of August 7-9, 1998. Rolland Parker, Ph.D. of the BIS Advisory Board will be the noted speaker and Menucha Fogel, B.S. will be the facilitator for the hour session. It is the second year that BIS has been invited to speak on Traumatic Brain Injury. Brain Injury Society was an absolute success at the Association of Orthodox Jewish Scientists where Rolland Parker, Ph.D. was the main speaker and Menucha Fogel, Executive Vice President of Brain Injury Society was the moderator. Brain Injury Society has been requested a three session program for next year's conference. The room held over 50 participants with others expressing that they were sorry there was not a second session as to follow-up on the discussion. We have been asked to develop a session series on acquired and traumatic brain injury for their 1999 conference and to assist in Sunday program on acquired and traumatic brain injury, to be held in Manhattan.
CATSKILL SUMMER '98 RESIDENTS ENJOY RADIO SHOW ON VISUAL DYSFUNTION AFTER BRAIN INJURY
Yael Respler, Ph.D. asked for a speaker for her radio show, Neera Kapoor, O.D., M.S. of BIS Advisory Board agreed for the second year to speak on vision dysfunction after brain injury and vision prevention. Yael Respler, Ph.D. radio audience was duly impressed with Dr. Kapoor.
The national and local media have called us for speakers.
CALL FOR VOLUNTEERS
Volunteers always needed to assist with planning of forums, workshops and conferences, call 718 645-440133. Help graciously welcomed.
OUR MASTERFUL WEBSITE DISIGNER
Our deepest thanks to Dr. Al Musella, President of the Musella Foundation for Brain Tumor Research & Information, for donating his services to create and continual upgrades our new website, http://www.virtualtrails.com/bis. He not only has kept BIS in hyperspace but also has built the most important brain tumor site http://virtualtrials.com, and set up a company, A1webs, which creates websites. He can be reached at 516 295-4740.
Please note changes in schedule. Click here for the schedule!
WORDS THAT BUILD WORDS THAT HEAL
Every day, with words we speak, we have a remarkable opportunity to do good and to improve the lives of those around us.
When we speak to family, friends' even strangers, in a gentle, considerate way, our words become conductors of tremendous positive power. We can alleviate loneliness and despair, build self-confidence and respect, and even turn a tense, volatile household into a peaceful, harmonious one.
Speaking gently is an act of kindness. A good deed can be preformed in almost every conversation and with no expenditure of time or money. All that's is needed is awareness.
When we greet an acquaintance on the street, at work or in school, we can make that person feel sincerely acknowledged. When we ask a child, a spouse or colleague to perform a task, we can make them fee needed and appreciated. When we need to reproach others, we make them feel our loving concern for their welfare. And when we speak to someone, who is facing difficulties, we can make him or her feel understood and supported.
But gearing our speech to accomplish these positive effects, we have the ability to create tremendous good in our immediate world.
For free copy of this message, send SASE attn: LTP to The Chofetz Chaim Heritage Foundation, 6 Melnick Dr., Monsey, NY 10952, 914 352-3505
Newsletter Name Selected.
Many thanks to those of the over 1700 votes that came in for selection of the newsletter name. Did anyone notice that the names in the final runoff were similar to SUV (Suburban Utility Vehicle). This was noticed and mentioned by Jane Rodriguez, secretary to Edwin F. Richter, MD at Rusk Rehabilitation Institute. Jane has a keen eye for details, details, details.
And the name is . . . "PATHFINDER".
Tie for Second place: Explorer and Trailblazer,
Third place: Forerunner.
Fourth Place: Brain Injury Society Newsletter
SPRING and AUTUMN 1999 FORUMS SCHEDULED
SET THE DATES ASIDE
Click here for details on our public forums!
THE TOP 10 REASONS WHY SUBSTANCE ABUSE AFTER BRAIN INJURY IS A BAD IDEA
Another in the series on Acquired Brain Injury and Substance Abuse
Harold Lifshutz, Ph.D.
Bellevue Hospital Center\New York University School of Medicine
10. An individual who uses alcohol or other drugs after a brain injury will not recover as much or as fast as a person who does not use. This can have both short term and long term consequences.
9. Problems of balance, walking, talking and communicating are exacerbated by alcohol and other drugs. A fall after alcohol or drug use could lead to an additional head injury.
8. Problems of disinhibition and judgment are also exacerbated by alcohol and other drugs.
7. Difficulty with problem solving, memory, concentration and other thinking skills are made worse with the use of alcohol and other drugs. Why make life more frustrating and confusing while putting oneself at risk. Their effects can be unpredictable.
6. Alcohol and drugs have a more powerful and quicker effect on a person after a brain injury. Some say they were able to "handle" six drinks before their injury. But that was BEFORE the injury. There are many cases of alcoholics and drug users who have accidentally killed themselves not realizing that their tolerance levels had dropped. They made the fatal error in assuming that their body could still tolerate the levels of use as before.
5. Alcohol increases depression because it is a depressant drug.
4. Alcohol and other drugs interact with medications often prescribed after a brain injury, especially those administered for seizure control, depression, anxiety or restlessness and pain. Use could lower one's seizure threshold thus increasing the chances of seizures.
3. Use of alcohol and other drugs after an injury increases a person's risk of another injury.
2. Alcohol is a drug. (This means beer, too!)
1. The cumulative effect of the other nine reasons above.
Some individuals say they don't drink (or do drugs) in excess. After a brain injury ANY alcohol or drug use is considered in excess. Another problem to be addressed is how to help an individual with impaired judgment, limited insight and awareness or information processing deficits realize that they indeed are having a problem and how to locate resources for them In general this is a complex process for the non brain injured but will be addressed in the future.
(Adapted from the Ohio Valley Center for Head Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation. For additional information their site at: Http://www.ohiovalley.org )
Harold Lifshutz, Ph.D. Bellevue Hospital Center\New York University School of Medicine
CALL FOR PAPERS
If you would like to write an article for our newsletter, email us at [email protected] with your idea, and we can work on it!
BIS LIBRARY IS ESTABLISHED
"Share your knowledge and information to all that seek it."
[email protected] Contributions helped start our library, including from advisory members, K. Menucha Fogel, B.S., A.B.D., Raphael Cilento, M.D., Rolland Parker, Ph.D., Jonathan Silver, M.D., Mark Ylvisaker, [email protected] The next step is up to you. All written, audio, software, visual matter pertaining to head injury and trauma, we are interested in. Books, journal materials, booklets, information on all levels. Material packets on community integration, activities in daily living, etc. Call 718 645-4401. We'll arrange for pick up, with thanks.
WHAT TO HAVE WHEN UNABLE TO COMMUNICATE
[email protected] It is not often that BIS endorses a product or organization, but Medic Alert is a different story. The bracelet or necklace has saved millions of lives. A person with a brain injury should consider a Medic Alert bracelet or necklace. This internationally recognized symbol speaks for you. The symbol alerts medical professionals to your condition. Medic Alert maintains a detailed database of member's medical information with international translators available. A call to the phone number listed on the bracelet sets this lifesaving system into action. For more information on Medic Alert, call 1-800-432-5378.
IN THE NEWS
Creative BioMolecules Licenses GDF-1 Neurotrophic Protein From Cambridge NeuroScience Thursday January 7, 8:31 am Eastern Time
Company Press Release
SOURCE: Creative BioMolecules
BOSTON, Jan. 7 /PRNewswire/ -- Creative BioMolecules, Inc. (Nasdaq: CBMI - news) and Cambridge NeuroScience, Inc. (Nasdaq: CNSI - news) today announced that Creative BioMolecules has licensed in from Cambridge NeuroScience exclusive rights to GDF-1, a growth factor with potential in the treatment of a number of nervous system disorders. Under the agreement, CBMI will receive all rights to GDF-1, and in exchange, CNSI will receive a cash payment and future royalties on product sales.
``The acquisition of GDF-1 reflects our strategy to build a more comprehensive portfolio of proteins with potential in tissue regeneration, which includes treatments for neurological disorders,'' said Michael M. Tarnow, President and Chief Executive Officer of Creative BioMolecules. ``Our experience in the development and manufacture of other members of the same protein family, including OP-1, will enable Creative to accelerate GDF-1 research to determine its potential for the treatment of injury and disease of the central nervous system.''
``Creative BioMolecules' expertise in tissue repair and regeneration, and its experience in neurological diseases makes it an ideal partner for developing GDF-1,'' said Harry Wilcox, President and Chief Executive Officer of Cambridge NeuroScience. ``The licensing agreement is in keeping with our strategy to focus our Company's internal resources on the continued development of our ion channel blocker and small molecule programs.'' GDF-1 is a member of a large family of growth factors called the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-beta) super family. OP-1 and other proteins currently being developed by Creative BioMolecules are closely related members of this family of proteins. In addition to GDF-1 and OP-1, Creative BioMolecules owns rights to other morphogenic proteins that show promise as potential therapies for neurological disorders. Collectively, these proteins play an important role in development and repair of the nervous system. The most advanced of these proteins in development, OP-1, has shown efficacy in animal models of stroke, has indicated potential benefit in animal models of Parkinson's disease, and may also benefit other neurodegenerative conditions.
Creative BioMolecules, Inc. is a leader in the understanding of tissue formation and repair through the activity of morphogenic proteins. This technology has demonstrated clinical success in bone-repair applications developed with Stryker, and has shown preclinical efficacy in several soft tissue applications, including injury or disease of the central nervous system, kidneys and other major organs.
Cambridge NeuroScience, Inc. is a leading neuroscience company engaged in the discovery and development of proprietary pharmaceuticals, with a focus on nerve cell survival. The Company is developing a number of products to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury, and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy and multiple sclerosis.
This news release includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Factors which could cause actual results to differ from the Companies' expectations include, without limitation, the course of the research and development programs, including the preclinical demonstration of safety and efficacy, achievement of development and regulatory milestones by the Companies and completion of clinical testing, the impact of competitive products, the timely receipt of regulatory clearances required for clinical testing, manufacturing and marketing of products and the other risks and uncertainties detailed from time to time in the Companies' periodic reports.
NOTE: Creative BioMolecules, Inc. makes available its latest news releases on the Internet at http://www.creativebio.com and at http://www.prnewswire.com or by facsimile by calling Fax On Demand at 1-800-758-5804, extension 212213.
BRAIN STEM CELLS DISCOVERED
Friday January 8 5:20 PM ET
NEW YORK, Jan 08 (Reuters Health) -- A team of Swedish researchers have discovered the site in the human brain that is the source of stem cells, those cells that can give rise to all types of cells in the central nervous system.
Because such cells are self-renewing and give rise to a variety of cells, including nerve cells, they may have the potential to be used for treating neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, or even spinal cord injury. The findings are published in the January 8th issue of the journal Cell. While stem cells are found in other tissues that continually produce new cells, such as the skin and bone marrow, it was thought until recently that the adult brain did not have the ability to generate new nerve cells -- much less contain stem cells that could give rise to a variety of brain cell types. ``Although there is much research that needs to be conducted before neurological stem cell therapy may reach the clinic, the identification of the stem cell in the adult brain and spinal cord is a significant leap that will facilitate the development of this field,'' said Dr. Ann Marie Janson, in a statement issued by NeuroNova, a Swedish scientific company that plans to develop stem cell-based therapies.
Janson founded the company with Dr. Jonas Frisen, the senior investigator on the new study. Frisen and co-authors are researchers at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. Frisen and colleagues discovered that a type of cell known as the ependymal cells are the long-searched for stem cells. Ependymal line the ventricles, the fluid-filled cavities of the brain.
The ependymal cells ``give rise to a rapidly proliferating cell type that generated neuron that migrate to the olfactory bulb,'' the authors write. After a spinal cord injury, the ependymal cells respond by rapidly producing a type of cell known as an astrocyte that participate in scar formation. ``A stem cell is capable of generating new cells and plays a key role in tissue healing in most organs of the body,'' Frisen said. ``However, the adult brain was long thought to be an exception.''
SOURCE: Cell 1999;96:25-34.
HELMETS RECOMMENDED FOR SKIERS
Story Filed: Thursday, January 07, 1999 08:49 PM EST
WASHINGTON (AP) -- A year after Rep. Sonny Bono died of head and neck injuries in a skiing accident, the Consumer Product Safety Commission is recommending that skiers and snowboarders wear helmets to reduce injuries and save lives.
In a study to be released Friday, the commission's staff concludes that helmet use by skiers and snowboarders could prevent or reduce the severity of 44 percent of head injuries to adults. The protective headgear could do the same for 53 percent of head injuries to children under age 15. ``We're giving people the best safety information we have: that when they do ski, they should decide to wear helmets,'' Ann Brown, the commission's chairwoman, said in an interview Thursday.
The CPSC study estimates that 7,700 injuries -- including 2,600 head injuries to children -- could be prevented or reduced in severity each year with the use of snowboarding and skiing helmets. There were 17,500 head injuries associated with skiing and snowboarding in 1997. Helmet use could also prevent about 11 of the 24 deaths from skiing and snowboarding each year, the commission found.
Getting more skiers and snowboarders to voluntarily wear helmets may not be easy. Fears that helmets will reduce speed on the slopes, the price of the helmets and just plain old vanity are some possible obstacles to convincing them. ``It's something that people don't think is cool,'' said Gary Taylor, manager of racing events at Mammoth Mountain Ski Area in Mammoth Lakes, Calif. Those trying to avoid ``helmet head'' or trying to show off their hair on the slopes might resist wearing the headgear, he said. Helmets for skiing and snowboarding can be pricey. Good models can begin at $100 and up, said Taylor, although lesser quality helmets are available for as little as $30. Brown warned that skiers and snowboarders shouldn't try to substitute bicycle helmets, because they don't offer the right kind of protection. Still, Taylor said encouraging skiers and snowboarders at Mammoth Mountain to wear helmets has met with some success. ``We're trying to get more of the athletes to wear helmets. It's actually been taken better than expected,'' he said.
The number of head injuries among skiers decreased from 13,600 in 1993 to 12,700 in 1997. But snowboarding injuries nearly tripled and the number of head injuries caused by snowboarding increased fivefold during that period. The commission hopes the same efforts that have led to increased use of helmets by in-line skaters and bicyclists will prompt those heading to the slopes to take a helmet. The skiing deaths of Bono on Jan. 5, 1998, and of Michael Kennedy the week before also have helped attract attention to the importance of the safety gear.
Brown said targeting children to make helmets a habit is the best place to start. As for those who might worry about what their tresses will look like post-helmet, Brown said, ``It doesn't matter if your hair looks good on the way to the hospital.''
The commission's study relied on information from a national electronic injury surveillance system that collects injury data from hospitals around the country. Other research cited by CPSC supports the recommendation. In Sweden, a national study found that head injuries among skiers wearing helmets were 50 percent lower than for skiers not wearing helmets.
Canada Skier's Career Might Be Over
Wednesday January 6 9:58 PM ET
CALGARY, Alberta (AP) - Cary Mullen, one of Canada's top downhillers before enduring a rash of injuries, has decided not to return to the World Cup ski circuit this season because of a concussion suffered during a December fall at Val d'Isere, France.
``My risk-to-reward ratio is greatly out of balance right now,'' Mullen said Wednesday. ``I didn't crash very hard and I was quite out of it for 10 minutes. It was a wakeup call to me that I wasn't as tough as I was before.''
Mullen, 29, will miss his second consecutive World Cup season because of a head injury and admitted he's coming to grips with the idea his career may be over. ``For the first time I have to consider that option,'' he said. ``I've never considered it before but now I'm faced with a real risk and a risk that might end my career. It's a risk I just can't grin and bear and work through. I have to listen to it.'' Mullen is the second Canadian racer lost for the season because of injury. Ed Podivinsky tore the anterior cruciate ligament in his left knee during training for a World Cup downhill at Val Gardena, Italy, just before Christmas.
Mullen missed all last season because of blurred vision and dizzy spells resulting from a concussion he suffered in a horrific crash at Beaver Creek, Colo., in December 1997. He returned to racing this year but banged his head again in a spill during a super-G at Aspen, Colo. Mullen seemed healthy after that fall, but returned to Canada after suffering another concussion at Val d'Isere. ``In hindsight, I think I came back too soon from (the Aspen) injury and I was vulnerable,'' he said. ``It's been a tough battle. I thought I learned a lot from the hit last year but made the one mistake in Aspen that re-injured things and really sent me backwards.''
The nine-year ski team veteran's best season was in 1994, when he won a World Cup downhill and was second in two.
Mullen said he's suffering from dizzy spells and ``a real throbbing, pounding in my brain.'' He won't resume skiing until at least the spring and then will make a decision on his future. ``I wanted to win again and I know I'm capable of it,'' Mullen said. ``I'm going to try to get back to 100 percent, gather some information, and see how it proceeds.''
MAN DIES FROM DISNEYLAND ACCIDENT
By Anthony Breznican Associated Press Writer
Sunday December 27 8:51 PM ET
ANAHEIM, Calif. (AP) - A tourist who suffered head injuries in an accident aboard Disneyland's Columbia sailing ship died after he was taken off life support.
Luan Phi Dawson was brain-dead for nearly 11 hours before he was removed from life support and pronounced dead Saturday night. His body was kept functioning to allow a relative to arrive and see him. Dawson, 33, of Duvall, Wash., had major injuries to his brain and to a major blood vessel in his head, Dr. Richard Kim of the University of California, Irvine, Medical Center said Sunday.
Dawson and his wife, Lieu Vuong, were struck in the head when a mooring rope tore a foot-long metal cleat from the hull of the park's sailing ship and whipped it into a crowd on Christmas Eve. Disneyland worker Christine Carpenter suffered major leg injuries. Ms. Vuong, 43, was upgraded from critical to fair condition at UCI Medical Center on Saturday and remained stable Sunday, nursing supervisor Nancy Rhomberg said. Ms. Vuong had plastic surgery for cuts to the right side of her face. Hospital officials said Ms. Carpenter, 30, of Anaheim, was in good condition at Western Medical Center-Anaheim on Saturday but have stopped giving updates on her condition.
The Columbia, a full-sized replica of an old American sailing ship, remains closed to be examined. ``I would like to offer out most heartfelt condolences and deepest sympathies to the family of Luan Dawson,'' Paul Pressler, president of Walt Disney Attractions, said in a statement issued Sunday.
WHAT IS COGNITIVE PROCESSING?
Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary study of the human mind and intelligence. Its aim is to develop an understanding of how humans think and reason; how humans communicate with each other and with machines; and how humans adapt to their environments. Objects of study range from micro-level neurosystems through to complete cognitive systems, and from individuals to groups. These objects of study amount to different levels of cognitive function. But research at one level ususally interacts with research at another.
Research methods in Cognitive Science normally fuse together methodologies from more than one discipline, with emphasis placed on: artificial intelligence, computer science, computational and theoretical linguistics, computational neuroscience, philosophy and psychology. The study of cognition involves empirical work within the controlled environment of the laboratory, formal analysis, and the formal and computational simulations of cognitive phenomena. Overall, emphasis is placed on computational work, because cognitive science aims to understand the fundamental computational processes that underly human information processing. Moreover, computational models of some aspect of human behaviour can serve as `proof of concept' for formal theories, and they can lead to practical computer technology. Computational modelling encompasses symbolic, stochastic and connectionist approaches. These are often combined, to form hybrid processing systems.
K. Menucha Fogel, B.S., A.B.D.
Harold Lifshutz, Ph.D.
Sanford Rosenfeld, Esq.
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